martes, 5 de febrero de 2008

Digital Zaha, la dinámica de lo pensado. El apoyo teórico de Patrik Schumacher

La presencia de Patrik Schumacher ha crecido hasta la figura de socio. Durante los últimos años, PS se ha dedicado a desarrollar una base teórica a las ingrávidas morfologías que nacen continuamente en el estudio Zaha Hadid architects. Publicadas en revistas de todo el mundo y en los libros oficiales, los textos se encuentran disponibles en una página creada a tales fines: a la que también se accede desde la página oficial del estudio:
Si las obras del equipo les han llamado la atención, es un buen momento para pasear por los escritos que buscan consolidar los caminos teóricos y metodológicos que los han gestado. Les dejamos uno breve.

Digital Zaha
Digital Hadid will explore the contribution of Zaha Hadid and of Zaha Hadid Architects to the development of the new architectural language and paradigm that is fast becoming hegemonic within avant-garde architecture today.
There is an unmistakable new style manifest within avant-garde architecture today. Its most striking characteristic is its complex and dynamic curvelinearity. Beyond this obvious surface feature one can identify a series of new concepts and methods that are so different from the repertoire of both traditional and modern architecture that one might speak of the emergence of a new paradigm for architecture. It seems difficult to give a unified name to this new paradigm that succinctly captures the essence of the current trend. One difficulty lies in the question whether such a defining term should refer to the formal features, the guiding concepts or the methods/techniques that characterize this new paradigm. Contenders are Blob-architecture, Folding , Deformation, Parametric Architecture, Digital Architecture.
This new language (or style) of architecture seems to be based upon the adoption of a new generation of 3D modeling tools. Indeed a lot of commentators tend to construe a direct causal link from this new paradigm back to the IT revolution that has transformed the discipline in last 10 years.
Indeed the choice of a representational/design medium has a huge impact on the character of the design results. The medium is never neutral and external to the work. It constitutes and limits the design issues treated and the universe of possibilities for effective design speculation. Design thinking is bound to the representational medium and its scope can be expanded by the expansion offered by the new digital design tools. The reflection upon “design worlds” (Mitchell 1990), and their embeddedness in the “discursive formations” (Foucault 1972) of the discipline, is a necessary component of taking a progressive stance towards the possibilities of design research.
However, I shall argue and demonstrate that such a simple reduction of the new type of work to the availability of computing in architecture would be a fallacy. While it is undeniably true that the arrival of the new tools (3ds max a.o.) had a huge impact and that these tools have been able to monopolize the production of contemporary work - without these tools nothing goes - I will argue that the adoption of animation tools was not at all inevitable, but rather had to be prepared by certain conceptual and methodological advances that preceded the arrival of these tools. To uncover and explicate this pre-digital pedigree of the current digital architecture will be the task of the first part of the book. In this prehistory one can locate Zaha Hadid’s most original and path-breaking contributions to the development of contemporary architecture. In this era – the 1980s - Hadid was one of the key protagonists in a field of radical conceptual and formal architectural research, and her pre-eminent reputation was established on the basis of pictorial research without the completion of a single building during this first decade of her career. During this period the computer was absent from Hadid’s design studio. However, the innovation of certain analog design media deployed was crucial in the formation of her work.
The second part of the book will focus on the development of the work since the introduction of the computer in 1990. Here I will introduce a series of key projects and key concepts that have been important with respect to the development of the current flourishing of “digital architecture” both within and beyond Hadid’s practice. This period in also the period in which Hadid’s architecture has made the transition from concept to material realization without compromising its innovative thrust. The involvement of the 3D modeling tools in this process of realization will be explained. Finally, I will present and discuss the most recent work of Zaha Hadid Architects which is marked by the fact that a new level of structural complexity, tectonic fluidity and plastic articulation has been mastered with precision and confidence.
While the book presents two parts representing two phases in the development of Hadid’s oevre pre-digital and (post)digital - I think the work has a strong continuity overall. The computer was introduced in the late eighties, early nineties, when we started with simple forms of 3D-modelling with Model-shop and later FormZ. That was a process parallel to hand drafting and painting. They were quick three-dimensional sketches. The computer was used because it was helpful for what was already established as an architectural language. The computer programs that work with splines and smoothly deformable meshes were introduced much later, in the second half of the nineties. The 2D computer-drafting, for the plans and sections, started in the mid-nineties. That was a big shift, because it meant not just working in layers, which you can also do on transparent paper, but it meant that we could work on all plans simultaneously. The latest shift is the introduction of 3D modeling and complex curvelinearity. That made more complex compositions possible. But the desire for complex form was always building upon the formal and conceptual innovations achieved previously. The tools came in as soon as they were available, keenly taken up to support the ambitious design manoevers already under way. It was a dialectic amplification, in which the new work spurned the search for new tools and the introduction of new tools facilitated the work further, pushing the most ambitious tendencies to new extremes. This process was an evolution of many smaller steps, not of a few singular breaks.

Las imágenes fueron tomadas de y pertenecen a obras presentadas en los últimos meses por el estudio en ese espacio de la web.

En el año 1967, el gran periodista deportivo Dante Panzeri publicó un libro titulado "La dinámica de lo impensado", en el cual el tema principal -el Fútbol como deporte- se concentra en el elemento más importante, aquel que aporta la dinámica por sí solo, el jugador. De allí la idea del título de esta nota, y la afirmación que en la arquitectura lo importante son las obras, es decir el resultado de todas las ideas, razonamientos, y procesos elaborados para llegar al objetivo. Uno puede justificar muchos caminos, pero el resultado final, el edificio, se debe defender solo. Lamentablemente no disponemos del tiempo necesario para permanecer al pie de cada edificio explicándole a todas las personas interesadas en el proyecto el porqué de tal o cual decisión. Tampoco para confeccionar un manual con esas explicaciones y adjuntarlo a la escritura de cada uno de los dueños.."En esa ventana que usted mal juzga yo quise representar el espacio aaltiano.."
Editado por el arq. Martín Lisnovsky

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