martes, 12 de julio de 2011
Schumacher: Las 24 Tesis de la Autopoiesis de la Arquitectura, vol. 1
Del libro publicado en el 2010 por Patrik Schumacher(socio de Zaha Hadid) "The Autopoiesis of Architecture" vol. 1, por intermedio de la editorial Wiley (la misma de las Architectural Design), hemos seleccionado el apéndice segundo, que contiene las 24 tesis planteadas en este volumen, con su referencia a cada capítulo. Esperamos las puedan leer con tiempo y plantear sus respectivas críticas / análisis / opiniones sobre las mismas para poder intercambiar los diversos puntos de vista.
THESIS 1 (part 1 Introduction: Architecture as Autopoietic System)
The phenomenon of architecture can be most adequately grasped if it is analyzed as an autonomous network (autopoietic system) of communications.
THESIS 2 (section 1.1 The Unity of Architecture)
There exists a single, unified system of communications that calls itself architecture: World Architecture (the autopoiesis of architecture).
THESIS 3 (section 1.2. The Evolution of Architecture)
Architectural theory effects an immense acceleration of architecture's evolution.
THESIS 4 (section 1. 3 The Necessity of Theory)
Architectural theory is integral to architecture in general and to all architectural styles in particular: there is no architecture without theory.
THESIS 5 (section 2.1 The Emergence of Architecture as Self-referential System)
Architecture observes and constitutes itself as a distinct domain within modern (functionally differentiated) society, claiming exclusive and universal competency with respect to the built environment. This demarcation is
THESIS 6 (section 2.2 Foundation and Refoundation of Arch itecture)
The emergence of architecture over and above building constitutes a significant evolutionary gain that elevates society's self-transformative capacity to a new level. Resolute autonomy (self-referential closure) is a prerequisite for architecture's effectiveness within an increasingly complex and dynamic societal environment.
THESIS 7 (section 2.3 Avant-garde vs Mainstream)
The distinction between avant-garde and mainstream is constitutive of architecture's evolution (autopoiesis). Only by differentiating the avant-garde as specific subsystem can contemporary architecture actively participate in
the evolution of society.
THESIS 8 (section 2.4 Architectural Research)
The avant-garde segment of architecture functions as the subsystem within the autopoiesis of architecture that takes on the necessary task of architectural research by converting both architectural commissions and educational institutions into substitute vehicles of research.
THESIS 9 (section 2.5 The Necessity of Demarcation)
Any attempt to integrate architecture and art, or architecture and science/engineering, in a unified discourse (autopoiesis) is reactionary and bound to fail.
THESIS 10 (section 3.1 Architectural Autopoiesis with in Functionally Differentiated Society)
In a society without control centre, architecture has to regulate itself and maintain its own mechanisms of evolution that allow it to stay adapted (within the ecology of coevolving societal subsystems).
THESIS 11 (section 3.2 The Autonomy of Architecture)
There can be no external determination imposed upon architecture - neither by political bodies, nor by paying clients - except in the negativeltrivial sense of disruption.
THESIS 12 (section 3.3 The Elemental Operation of Architecture)
The self-determination (autopoiesis) of architecture must provide credible criteria and processes that can absorb the risk of communicating design decisions that project into an uncertain future.
THESIS 13 (section 3.4 The Lead-d isti nction with in Architecture and the Design Disciplines)
The lead-distinction of form vs function defines the discipline and has universal relevance with respect to all communications within architecture. As the difference between architectural self-reference and architectural world-reference, it represents the difference between system and environment within the system.
THESIS 14 (section 3.5 The Codification of Architecture)
All design decisions are evaluated along two dimensions: utility and beauty.
THESIS 15 (section 3.6 Architectural Styles)
Architecture needs (new) styles to streamline the design decision process and to regulate (anew) the handling of its evaluative criteria (code values).
THESIS 16 (section 3.7 Styles as Research Programmes)
Avant-garde styles are design research programmes. They start as progressive research programmes, mature to become productive dogmas, and end as degenerate dogmas.
THESIS 17 (section 3.8 The Rationality of Aesthetic Values)
Aesthetic values encapsulate condensed, collective experiences within useful dogmas. Their inherent inertia implies that they progress via revolution rather than evolution.
THESIS 18 (section 3.9 The Double-nexus of Architectural Communications: Themes vs Projects)
All architectural communications must contribute to both themes and projects. This indispensable double connectivity of architectural communications is a hallmark of architecture as a practice steered by theory.
THESIS 19 (section 4.1 Medium and Form)
Architecture depends upon its medium - the drawing/digital model - in the same way that the economy depends on money and politics depends on power. It sustains a new plane of communication that relies on the credibility
of the medium and remains inherently vulnerable to inflationary tendencies.
THESIS 20 (section 4.2 The Medium and the Time Structure of the Design Process)
The evolution of architecture's autopoiesis involves the evolution of its specific medium. The introduction of the medium established the capacity to progress the architectural project while maintaining reversibility. Each further step in the development of the medium increased this crucial capacity to combine design progress with the preservation of adaptive malleability.
THESIS 21 (section 5.1 Architecture as Societal Function System)
All social communication requires institutions. All institutions require architectural frames. The societal function of architecture is to order/adapt society via the continuous provision and innovation of the built environment as a system of frames
THESIS 22 (section 5.2 Innovation as Crucial Aspect of Architecture's Societal Function)
Everything in architecture's communicative constitution is geared towards innovation: its elemental form of communicative operation, its elaborate communication structures and its specialized medium of communication.
THESIS 23 (section 5.3 Strategies and Techniques of Innovation)
Radical innovation presupposes newness. Newness is otherness. The new is produced by blind mechanisms rather than creative thought. Strategic selection is required to secure communicative continuity and adaptive pertinence.
THESIS 24 (section 5.4 Key Innovations: Place, Space, Field)
The concept of space was the conceptual mainspring of Modernism. It is now being superseded by the concept of field as one of the conceptual mainsprings of Parametricism.
Seleccionado por el arq. Martín Lisnovsky